Scientific Publications

Since its inception, the Wildlife Center of Virginia has been a significant contributor to advancing the work of conservation science, wildlife rehabilitation, and environmental education.

The following articles authored by Wildlife Center of Virginia's staff have appeared in professional veterinary medicine and rehabilitation journals.  Updated 2023.  

Note: Authors names in BOLD were employed at the Wildlife Center of Virginia at the time of research or publication. Authors names in ITALICS were involved in cases at the Wildlife Center but were not employees (i.e., students).

Papers where author names are neither in bold or italics indicate where the Wildlife Center of Virginia has made significant contributions toward the paper to warrant acknowledgment.

Veterinary Medicine

Hanley, B., Dhondt, A.,Forzán, M., Bunting, E., Pokras, M., Hynes, K., Domínguez-Villegas, E., & Schuler, K. 2020. EagleDashboard: Assessing the population scale impacts of a disease, toxin, or contaminant in Bald Eagles [Software]. Cornell University Library eCommons Repository.
Brenda J. Hanley, André A. Dhondt, Elizabeth M. Bunting, Mark A. Pokras, Kevin P. Hynes, María J. Forzán, Ernesto Dominguez-Villegas  & Krysten L. Schuler. "Lead reduces growth and limits the resiliency of bald eagle populations." (2022) J. Wildl. Manage. 1-18
Slabe, V.A., Anderson, J.T., Cooper, J., Miller, T.A., Brown, B., Wrona, A., Ortiz, P., Buchweitz, J., McRuer, D., Dominguez‐Villegas, E., Behmke, S. and Katzner, T. (2020), Feeding ecology drives lead exposure of facultative and obligate avian scavengers in the eastern United States. Environ Toxicol Chem. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 39(4)

Niedringhaus K, Brown J, Ternent M, Peltier S, Van Wick M, Yabsley M. Serology as a tool to investigate sarcoptic mange in American black bears (Ursus americanus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases. J Wildl Dis (2020) 56 (2): 350–358.

Slabe, Vincent A., James T. Anderson, Jeff Cooper, Bracken Brown, Patricia Ortiz, John Buchweitz, Dave McRuer, and Todd Katzner. "Lead in piscivorous raptors during breeding season in the Chesapeake Bay region of Maryland and Virginia, USA." Environmental toxicology and chemistry 38, no. 4 (2019): 862-871.

Hanley, B., Connelly, P., & Dennis, B. 2019. "IsoPOPdAnnualEagle: Interactive software to understand how elements in the annual population matrix of Bald Eagle influence the asymptotic population growth rate" [Software]. Cornell University Library eCommons Repository.

Van Wick P, Kang B, Mangus L, Dominguez-Villegas E. Characterization of an unusual mesenchymal tumor in the proventriculus of a free-ranging Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). J. of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 33(3):296-301 (2019)

The interface between invasive species and the increased incidence of tickborne diseases, and the implications for federal land managers. Invasive Species Advisory Committee. U.S. Department of the Interior. Adopted May 3, 2019.

Clark E. The Veterinary Practitioner and The Wildlife Rehabilitator: Building the Right Relationship and Touching All the Bases. In Medical Management of Wildlife Species: A Guide for Practitioners. Eds: Hernandez SM, Wilson Barron H, Miller E, Aguilar R, and Yabsley MJ. Wiley-Blackwell. 2019

Knight K, VanWick P. Medical and Surgical Management of Deer. In Medical Management of Wildlife Species: A Guide for Practitioners. Eds: Hernandez SM, Wilson Barron H, Miller E, Aguilar R, and Yabsley MJ. Wiley-Blackwell. 2019

McRuer DL, Ingraham H. Natural History and Medical Management of Ursids. In Medical Management of Wildlife Species: A Guide for Practitioners. Eds: Hernandez SM, Wilson Barron H, Miller E, Aguilar R, and Yabsley MJ. Wiley-Blackwell. 2019 

Escobar LE., Pritzkow S., Kirchgessner M., Winter S., Grear D., Dominguez-Villegas E., Machado G., Peterson T., Soto C. Trends in the ecology of  Chronic Wasting Disease in Wildlife. Biol Rev. (2019) published online

Hashem, B. Evaluating the success of an orphaned American black bear (Ursus americanus) rehabilitation program in Virginia. J Wildlife Rehabilitation. 2019 Vol. 39 (2) : 7-12

Larios, J., Madera, M. Raptor Anesthesia.  J National Association of Veterinary Technicians. Dec/Jan 2019

Goller B., Baumhardt P., Dominguez-Villegas E., Katzner T., Lucas J., Fernandez-Juricic E., Measuring eagle visual and auditory perception to enhance deterrent technology for wind turbines. Proceedings Wind Wildlife Research Meeting, St. Paul, MN. 2018

Van Wick P, Dominguez-Villegas E. (2018) A novel Treatment Option for Sarcoptic Mange in American Black Bears. Proceedings WDA International Conference, 2018

Slabe, V.A., J.T. Anderson, B. Millsap, A.R. Harmata, M. Restani, J. Cooper, K. Rogers, P.H. Bloom, R. Domenech, R. Crandall, B. Smith, M. Lockhart, D. Driscoll, T. Booms, D. McRuer, E. Dominguez-Villegas, B. Bodenstein, T. Ortiz, & T. Katzner. 2018. Continental-scale patterns of lead exposure of facultative avian scavengers. Raptor Research Foundation Annual Conference. Kruger National Park, South Africa. Oral presentation. 2018

Dominguez-Villegas, E, Anderson, K. (2018) What is Your Diagnosis? Congenital malformation of the sternum in a Red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). J Avian Med Surg. 32 (2) 158-162

Astorga F, Carver S, Almberg ES, Sousa GR, Wingfield K, Niedringhaus KD, Van Wick P, Rossi L, Xie Y, Cross P, Angelone S, Gortazar C, Escobar LE. (2018) International meeting on sarcoptic mange in wildlife, June 2018, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA. Parasites & Vectors, 11:449.

Van Wick, M., & Hashem, B. (2019). Treatment of sarcoptic mange in an American black bear (Ursus americanus) with a single oral dose of fluralaner. Journal of wildlife diseases, 55(1), 250-253.

Franzen-Klein, D., McRuer, D., Slabe, V. A., & Katzner, T. (2018). The use of lead isotope analysis to identify potential sources of lead toxicosis in a juvenile bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) with ventricular foreign bodies. Journal of avian medicine and surgery, 32(1), 34-40.

Yabsley, Michael J., Ralph ET Vanstreels, Ellen S. Martinsen, Alexandra G. Wickson, Amanda E. Holland, Sonia M. Hernandez, Alec T. Thompson, Dave McRuer, et al. "Parasitaemia data and molecular characterization of Haemoproteus catharti from New World vultures (Cathartidae) reveals a novel clade of Haemosporida." Malaria journal 17, no. 1 (2018): 12.

Dominguez E, VanWick P. "Chelonian." In: Topics in Wildlife Medicine: Orthopedics. National Wildlife Rehabilitators Association. 2017: Volume 4; Pp 200-206

Dominguez-Villegas, E. , Willet, M, Britton, K. (2016) High dose of combined chelation therapy in a Bald Eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus) with acute high lead toxicity. Proceedings AAZV Annual Conference, 2016

McRuer, Dave L., et al. "Free‐roaming cat interactions with wildlife admitted to a wildlife hospital." The Journal of Wildlife Management 81.1 (2017): 163-173.

Sadar MJ, McRuer DL, Michelle G. Hawkins MG, and Armién AG.  Multifocal respiratory and vertebral mycobacteriosis in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2015 46(1): 150-154.

Ewbank ACRuder MG, McRuer DL, Armién AG. What is your diagnosis? Chronic severe nutritional osteodystrophy, or rickets. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery. 2013, 27(2):156-161

Armien AG, McRuer DL, Ruder MG, Wuenschmann A. Purkinje Cell Heterotopy With Cerebellar Hypoplasia in Two Free-Living American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). Veterinary Pathology. 2013 Jan;50(1):182-7

McRuer DL, Hall NH. Wildlife. Chapter 13 In Exotic Animal Formulary, Fourth Edition. Carpenter JW, Marion CJ. Published by Elsevier 2012; 662-683.

Allender MC, Abd-Eldaim M, Schumacher J, McRuer D, Christian LS, Kennedy M. PCR Prevalence of Ranavirus in Free-Ranging Eastern Box Turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) at Rehabilitation Center in Three Southeastern US States. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2011; 47(3):759-764

Hall NH, Swinford A, McRuer D, Hall JS. Survey of Haircoat Fungal Flora for the Presence of Dermatophytes in a Population of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Virginia. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2011; 47(3):713-716

Black PA, McRuer DL, Horne L. Hematologic Parameters in Raptor Species in a Rehabilitation Setting Before Release. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery. 2011; 25(3): 192-198.

McRuer DL. Jones KD. Behavioral and nutritional aspects of the Virginian opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Veterinary Clinics of North America – Exotic Animal Practice. 2009; 12(2):217-236 

Horne L. A Successful Veterinary Technician Extern and Volunteer Program at The Wildlife Center of Virginia. 2008 AZVT 28th Annual Proceedings, pp. 89-92

McRuer DL. Contributing author, Veterinary Board Games, Charlottetown, PE, Canada; 2008

Ruder MG, Feldman SH, Wünschmann A, McRuer DL. Association of Mycoplasma corogypsi and polyarthritis in a black vulture (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2009; 45(3): 808-816

Ruder MG, Bernal AO, McRuer, DL, Spahr J. What’s your diagnosis? Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery. 2008;22(4):359-363

Reaser JK, Clark Jr EE, Meyers NM. All Creatures Great and Minute: A Public Policy Primer for Companion Animal Zoonoses. Zoonoses and Public Health. 2008; 55(8-10):385 – 401

Kroenlein KR, Sleeman JM, Holladay SD, Joyner PH, Brown JD, Griffin M, Saunders G, Smith SA. Inability to induce tympanic squamous metaplasia using organochlorine compounds in vitamin A-deficient Red-eared Sliders (Trachemys scripta elgans). J. Wildl. Dis. 2008; 44(3): 664-669.

Joyner PH, Jones MP, Ward D, Gompf RE,  Zagaya N, Sleeman JM. Induction and recovery characteristics and cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane in bald eagles.  American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2008; 69(1): 13-22

Harris MC, Schorling JJ, Herring IP, Elvinger F, Bright PR, Pickett JP. Ophthalmic examination findings in a colony of Screech owls (Megascops asio). Vet Ophthalmol. 2008; 11(3):186-92.

Bunning ML, Fox PE, Bowen RA, Komar N, Chang GJ, Speaker TJ, Stephens MR, Nemeth N, Panella NA, Langevin SA, Gordy P, Teehee M, Bright PR, Turell MJ. DNA vaccination of the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) provides partial protection against lethal challenge with West Nile virus. Avian Dis. 2007; 51(2):573-7.

Hahn DC, Nemeth NM, Edwards E, Bright PR, Komar N. Passive West Nile virus antibody transfer from maternal Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to progeny. Avian Diseases. 2007; 50(3):454–455

Joyner PHBrown JD, Holladay S, Sleeman JM. Characterization of the Bacterial Microflora of the Tympanic Cavity of Eastern Box Turtles With and Without Aural Abscesses. J. Wildl. Dis. 2006; 42:859-864.

Joyner PH, Shreve AA, Spahr J, Fountain AL, Sleeman JM. Phaeohyphomycosis in a Free-Living Eastern Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina). J. Wildl. Dis. 2006; 42(4):883-888.

Feldman SH, Wimsatt J, Marchang RE, Johnson AJ, Brown W, Mitchell JC, Sleeman JM.  A novel Mycoplasma detected in association with upper respiratory disease syndrome in free-ranging Eastern Box Turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina)  in Virginia. J. Wildl. Dis. 2006; 42:279-289.

Joyner PH, Kelly S, Shreve AA, Snead SE, Sleeman JM, Pettit DA. West Nile virus in raptors from Virginia during 2003: Clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiological findings. J. Wildl. Dis. 2006; 42:335-344.

Murray S, Sanchez C, Bronson E, Harris MC, Viner T. Diagnostic Imaging in Veterinary Dental Practice. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2006; 228(5):697-698

Sleeman JM. Wildlife. Appendices 97 – 101 In Exotic Animal Formulary, Third Edition. Carpenter JW, Marion CJ. Published by Elsevier 2005; 535-545.

Adams CJ, Sleeman JM. Clinical Challenge. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2005; 36(4):731–734

Adams CJ, Feldman SH, Sleeman JM. Phylogenetic analysis of avian poxviruses among free-ranging birds of Virginia. Avian Diseases. 2005; 49(4): 601–605

Grove DM, Zajac AM, Spahr J, Duncan RB, Sleeman JM. Combined infection by avian poxvirus and Collyriclum faba in an American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2005; 36(1): 111–114

Brown JD, Richards JM, Robertson J, Holladay S, Sleeman JM. Pathology of aural abscesses in free-living Eastern Box Turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). J. Wildl. Dis. 2004; 40(4): 704-712.

Kelly TR, Vennen KM, Duncan R, Sleeman JM. Lymphoproliferative Disorder in a Great Horned Owl  (Bubo virginianus). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 2004; 18(4):263–268

Richards JM, Brown JD, Kelly TR, Fountain AL, Sleeman JM. Absence of detectable Salmonella cloacal shedding in free-living reptiles on admission to the Wildlife Center of Virginia. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2004; 35(4): 562-563

Kelly TR, Sleeman JM. Morbidity and mortality of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) admitted to the Wildlife Center of Virginia, 1993-2001. J. Wildl. Dis. 2003; 39: 467-469

Moresco A, Larsen S, Sleeman JM, Wild MA, Gaynor JS. Use of naloxone to reverse carfentanil citrate-induced hypoxemia and cardiopulmonary depression in Rocky Mountain wapiti (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2001; 32(1): 81-89

Gentz EJ, Linn KA. Use of a Dorsal Cervical Single Pedicle Advancement Flap in 3 Birds With Cranial Skin Defects. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery. 2000; 14(1):31–36

Rickard LG, Siefker C, Boyle CR, Gentz EJ. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in fecal samples from free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the southeastern United States.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 1999; 11(1):  65-72

Gentz EJ, Hocker AP, Campbell V. Hydrocephalus in wild red fox (Vulpes vulpes) kits in northern Virginia. Proceedings AAZV and AAWV Joint Conference. 1998

Muscatello G. Oesophageal impaction in a Canada goose (Branta canadensis). Aust Vet J 1998; 76:537-540

Porter SL. Veterinary care of native wildlife. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference (USA). 1995; 9: 693-696

Pokras M, Porter SL. An introduction to nonavian wildlife emergencies. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1994; 24(1): 187-218.

Porter SL. Pesticide poisoning in birds of prey. In: Raptor Biomedicine. Chapter 41 Univ. Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1993

Porter SL. Role of the veterinarian in wildlife rehabilitation. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1992; 200(5):634-40.

Dubey JP, Porter SL, Tseng F, Shen SK, Thulliez P. Induced toxoplasmosis in owls. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 1992; 23: 98-102.

Dubey JP, Porter SL, Hattel AL, Kradwl DC, Topper MJ Johnson.  Sarcocystis-associated clinical encephalitis in a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 1991; 22 (2): 233-236.


McRuer DL. Euthanasia in Wildlife Rehabilitation. In: Topics in Wildlife Medicine: Ethical Considerations in Wildlife Medicine. Ed. Hoggard C. National Wildlife Rehabilitators Association, St. Cloud, MN. In Press

Stumbo D. New Approach to a Common Species: Re-evaluating Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) Rehabilitation. Ed. Davis LM. In Wildlife Rehabilitation Resources: Squirrels. National Wildlife Rehabilitation Resources, St. Cloud, MN. 2012; Pp13-26

McRuer, DL. Antifungal Use in the Wildlife Patient. Ed. Davis LM. In Wildlife Rehabilitation Resources: Pharmacology. National Wildlife Rehabilitation Resources, St. Cloud, MN.

McRuer, DL. Vaccine Use in Wildlife Patients. Ed. Davis LM. In Wildlife Rehabilitation Resources: Pharmacology. National Wildlife Rehabilitation Resources, St. Cloud, MN.

Calhoun D. The ABC’s of CBC’s. Wildlife Rehabilitation. 2008; 26.

Nicholson, A. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn rehabilitation. Wildlife Rehabilitation. 2006; 24:23-30

Clark Jr EE. The role of wildlife rehabilitators in emerging disease surveillance, biosecurity, and bioterrorism. Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation. 2002; 25(4): 26-27

Whited L. Simple Solution: An Innovative Approach to Snapping Turtle Restraint. Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation. 2001; 24(3): 32

Neff, T. Use of pharyngostomy tubes in opossums (Didephis virginiana). Wildlife Rehabilitation. 1999; 17: 43-47

Neff, T. Dorsal proximal intertarsal subluxation in an adult red fox: case study. Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation. 2002; 22(2): 13-17

Gentz EJ, Arink I, Snead SE. Fubar: The use of veterinary acronyms in wildlife rehabilitation. Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation. 1999; 22(2): 18-19

Daum AH, Sweet DL. Help Wanted: Orphan Raisers - Preceptor and Apprentice Programs. Wildlife Rehabilitation. 1997; 15: 219-226

Porter SL. Laboratory Diagnostic Testing in Wildlife Rehabilitation. Wildlife Rehabilitation. 1992; 10: 167-172.

Porter SL. Vehicular Trauma in Owls. 1990. Proceedings of the Association of Avian Veterinarians

Porter SL. The Medical Management of White-Tailed Deer Fawns (Odocoileus virginianius). Wildlife Rehabilitation. 1990; 8: 45-56

Porter SL. Avian hematology for the wildlife rehabilitator. Wildlife Rehabilitation. 1988; 7: 87-96

Porter SL. Avian eye diseases and injuries. Wildlife Rehabilitation. 1987; 6: 19-24

Porter SL. Pesticide Use in Virginia. Wildlife Rehabilitation. 1987; 6: 39-44


Nicholson, A. (2022). Becoming a Media Ambassador. Wildlife Rehabilitation Bulletin, 39(1), 31-35.

Nicholson A. "Share it, Pin it, Tweet it: Effective Use of Social Media for Wildlife Rehabilitation." Wildlife Rehabilitation Bulletin. 2013, 31(1): 25-30

Nicholson A. "Rolling Out the Red Carpet: Surviving High-profile Patients at your Center." Wildlife Rehabilitation Bulletin. 2012, 30(2): 17-20

Conservation Medicine

McRuer DL, Gray LC, Horne L, Clark E. Free-Roaming Cat Interactions with Wildlife Admitted to a Wildlife Hospital. Journal of Wildlife Management. 2017, 81(1): 163-173

Loyd KT, Hernandez SM, McRuer DL. The role of domestic cats in the admission of injured wildlife at rehabilitation and rescue centers across North America 2011-2015. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 2016. Accepted and in press.

Steen DA, Hopkins BC, Van Dyke JU, Hopkins WA. Prevalence of Ingested Fish Hooks in Freshwater Turtles from Five Rivers in the Southeastern United States. PLOS ONE. 2014, 9(3) 1-6

Willette MM, Ponder JB, McRuer DL, Clark Jr EE. Wildlife Health Monitoring Systems in North America: From Sentinel Species to Public Policy. In New Directions in Conservation Medicine: Applied Cases of Ecological Health. Eds: Aguirre AA, Ostfeld R, Daszak P. Published by Oxford University Press US, 2012; pp 552-562

Sleeman JM, Brown JD, Steffen D, Jones D, Robertson J, Holladay S. Relationships among aural abscesses, organochlorine compounds, and vitamin A in free-ranging eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).  Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2008; 44(4): 922-929

Harris MC, Sleeman JM. Morbidity and Mortality of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregreinus) admitted to the Wildlife Center of Virginia, 1993-2003. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 2007; 38(1):62–66

Steen1 DA, Aresco MJ, Beilke SG, Compton BW, Condon1 EP, Dodd Jr. CK, Forrester H, Gibbons JW, Greene JL, Johnson G, Langen TA, Oldham MJ, Oxier DN,. Saumure RA , Schueler FW, Sleeman JM, Smith LL, Tucker JK, Gibbs JP. Relative vulnerability of female turtles to road mortality. Animal Conservation. 2006; 9: 269–273

Richards J, Lickey A, Sleeman JM. Decreasing prevalence and seasonal variation of gunshot trauma in raptors admitted to the Wildlife Center of Virginia: 1993-2002. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2005; 36(3): 485–488

Sleeman JM. The role of Ebolavirus in the decline of great ape populations. Oryx. 2004 (Letter to the Editor); 38(2): 136

Brown JD, Sleeman JM, Elvinger F. Epidemiologic determinants of aural abscessation in free-living eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina) in Virginia. J. Wildl. Dis. 2003; 39: 918-921

Sleeman JM, Clark Jr EE. Clinical wildlife medicine: A new paradigm for a new century. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery. 2003; 17(1): 33-37

Brown JD, Sleeman JM. Morbidity and mortality of reptiles admitted to the Wildlife Center of Virginia, 1991 to 2000. J. Wildl. Dis. 2002; 38: 699-705

Wendell MD, Sleeman JM, Kratz G. Retrospective study of morbidity and mortality of raptors admitted to Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital during 1995 to 1998. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2002;  38(1) 101–106

Reaser JK, Gentz EJ, Clark Jr. EE. Wildlife health and environmental security: New challenges and opportunities. In Conservation Medicine: Ecological Health in Practice Eds. Aguirre AA, Ostfeld RS, Tabor GM, House C, Pearl MC. Published by Oxford University Press US, 2002; pp 383-407

Blumton AK, Fraser JD, Young RW, Goodbred S, Porter SL, Luukkonen DL. Pesticide and PCB residues for loggerhead shrikes in the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, 1985-88. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1990; 45(5):697-702.